Gone are the days when the assurance of privacy and security of personal information was taken for granted. The present world has evolved into an environment where cybercrime poses a real, menacing, and enduring threat, demanding serious attention from both organizations and individuals. In the current digital age, characterized by global interconnectivity, it is undeniably a world dominated by hackers.
Even the former U.S. president, Donald Trump, acknowledged the alarming growth of cyber theft, asserting it as the fastest-growing crime in America. This sentiment is not isolated; the cybersecurity community collectively agrees on the severity of the issue.
Let’s delve into some compelling statistics:
- In 2017 alone, the cost of damages caused by cybercrime reached $3.5 trillion, and this figure is anticipated to surge to $7 trillion annually by 2022.
- U.S. organizations invested a staggering $80 billion in products and services to shield themselves from cybercrime in a single year, a number projected to surpass $1 trillion in 2017.
- Unemployment is virtually nonexistent in the cybersecurity industry, with an acute shortage of talent globally, resulting in a cybersecurity unemployment rate of zero percent as of 2016.
- Malicious hackers have shifted their focus from silicon to blood, targeting humans over computers, given the projected 4 billion people online by 2020, according to Microsoft.
- Shockingly, the average hacker can remain undetected in a network for an average of 200 days.
These statistics are not intended to instill fear but rather to shed light on the global landscape. Observing news and media reports should provide insight into the escalating nature of this issue.
When you hear the term “hacking,” what images come to mind? Perhaps a hooded figure attempting illegal access to a network or a geeky individual deploying encrypted programs for malicious purposes? Regardless of the mental images, it’s common for people to associate hacking with criminal activities. However, hacking, at its core, is an attempt to solve problems or enhance applications through innovative re-engineering of hardware or software.
The origins of hacking trace back to MIT geeks in the 1950s who repurposed old telephone equipment to control model trains. Their creativity extended to modifying computer programs, aiming to improve and customize them. Hacking, historically, has been about solving problems creatively rather than solely engaging in malicious activities.
Distinguishing Types of Hackers
To effectively address hacking, understanding the motivations behind different hacker types is crucial. The hacking community exhibits diverse skill levels and motivations, necessitating insight into their mindset. The commonly recognized hacker categories include:
- White Hats: Also known as ‘ethical hackers,’ they operate within legal bounds, working to identify and rectify vulnerabilities in systems as cybersecurity experts.
- Black Hats: Motivated by power and money, these hackers engage in malicious activities, such as data theft or causing damage, often fueled by animosity towards organizations or countries.
- Gray Hats: Former Black Hats who reform and work as cybersecurity experts, sometimes engaging in both consulting and unauthorized network access.
Classes of Hackers
Within the Black and White Hat categories, specific classes exist:
- Elite: Highly skilled hackers with unparalleled knowledge, often acting ethically to identify and address coding problems or security flaws.
- Cyber Terrorists: Go beyond network crashes, hiding behind the web to share information, often employed by governments for activities ranging from spying to cyber warfare.
- Script Kiddies: Young, inexperienced hackers using tools created by elite hackers, often engaging in activities for fun, with exploits commonly highlighted in the media.
- Hacktivists: Blend hacking with activism, targeting governments or organizations to convey political, social, or religious messages.
- Angry Employees: Insiders with access to organization information, gathering data for personal gain, often remaining unnoticed by the public.
- Virus Writers: Exploit vulnerabilities exposed by hackers, writing code to take advantage of those weaknesses.
Skills Required for Hacking
For beginners venturing into the hacking realm, certain fundamental skills are essential:
- Computer Skills: Understanding and implementing written instructions, essential for every hacker.
- Linux OS Knowledge: Customization capabilities make Linux preferable for hackers.
- Database Skills: Proficiency in database management systems like Oracle and MySQL facilitates penetration into databases.
- Networking Skills: Familiarity with concepts such as subnetting, DNS, ports, WPS passwords, etc., crucial for online activities.
- Scripting Skills: Learning scripting languages like Ruby on Rails or Python is imperative for creating personalized hacking tools.
- Reverse Engineering Skills: Valuable for dismantling and improving existing hacking tools.
- Use of Virtualization Software: Essential for testing hacks safely before implementing them on external systems, with VMWare Workstation as an example.
Motivations of a Hacker
Despite advancements in technology, the motivations driving hackers remain consistent. Four fundamental motives include:
- Money: Financial gain is a primary motivator for cyber attacks, with hackers exploiting vulnerabilities to steal valuable information.
- Political/Ideological Agenda: Hacktivists pursue political, social, or scientific goals by targeting networks of government institutions or prominent figures.
- Entertainment: Gray Hats may exploit networks for fun or challenge, violating ethical laws but not necessarily engaging in malicious activities.
- Cyber Security: White Hats seek to exploit systems to identify and rectify weaknesses, often employed by organizations to enhance cybersecurity.
Understanding these motivations is crucial in predicting and thwarting hacking attempts, even for those in the early stages of learning.